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Conference Articles

Copyright of the papers below rests with a variety of different parties. They are made available solely on the same basis that we would supply a single copy of a paper to an individual. It is up to you to ensure that your use of a paper does not infringe copyright law.


2019

n Lee, G. J., Kwon, T. H., Ryu, H. H., Kim, K. Y., and Oh, T. M. (2019) "Effect of machine factors of tunnel boring machines on penetration rates in rocks", World Tunnel Congress 2019, May 3-9, 2019, Naples, Italy. [PDF]

n Sohn, Y., Lee, J. Y., Song, K. I., and Kwon, T. H. (2019) "Impact of interbedded structure of sand and clay layers on geomechanical responses of hydrate-bearing sediments during depressurization", Offshore Technology Conference 2019, May 6-9, 2019, Houston, USA. [PDF]

n Choi, S. K., Kwon, T. H., Lee, S. R., and Park, J. Y. (2019) "Roles of barrier location for effective debris flow mitigation: assessment using DAN3D", 2019 International Debris Flow Hazards Mitigation Conference, June 10-13, 2019, Golden, USA. 

n Kwon, T. H., Choi, S. K., Myung, H., Jung, S. W., and Kim, Y. T. (2019) "Topographic data acquisition and reduction for landslides modeling using UAV-LiDAR system", European Geosciences Union 2019, Apr 7-12, 2019, Vienna, Austria. 

n Choi, S. K., Kwon, T. H., Lee, S. R., Park, J. Y., and Kim, Y. T. (2019) "Assessment of debris flow barrier as countermeasure using SPH method", European Geosciences Union 2019, Apr 7-12, 2019, Vienna, Austria. 

n Zhang, K., Petrie, J., Ham, S. M., Muhunthan, B., and Kwon, T. H. (2019) "Numerical analysis at the particulate scale of sand erosion under impinging jet", Advancements on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures. GeoChina 2018. Sustainable Civil Infrastructures. Springer, Cham. [PDF] [Link]

2018

n Han, G., Kwon, T.H., Lee, J.Y., Jung, J.W. (2018) "Migration and clogging of silty fines by two-phase flows and its effect on sediment permeability",  International Symposium on Energy Geotechnics, Sep 25-28, 2018, Lausanne, Switzerland.

n Baek, S.H., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) "X-ray microtomography imaging of abiotic carbonate precipitation in sands and its effect on permeability of sands", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

n Park, T., Jeon, M.K., Kim, S., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) "Modification of wettability and interfacial tension by biosurfactant-producing bacteria for geologic carbon storage", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

n Joo, H.W., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) " Monitoring of bacterial biofilm formation in sands using complex electrical conductivity", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

n Jeon, M.K., Choi, J., Park, T., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) " Connecting microfluidics experiments and pore network modeling in understanding multiphase flows in porous media", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

n Kim, Y.M., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) " Biofilms can retain sub-micron fine particles migrating in porous media: toward enhancing durability of bioclogging in soils", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

n Noh, D.H., and Kwon, T.H. (2018) " Seismic monitoring of biopolymer accumulation and permeability reduction in sands", Interpore 10th Annual Meeting and Jubilee, May 14-17, 2018, New Orleans, USA.

2017

n Baek, S.H., and Kwon, T.H. (2017) "X-ray micro-CT imaging of abiotic calcium carbonate cementation in sand and its effect on hydraulic conductivity.", The Thirtieth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 2-4, 2017, Taipei, Taiwan.

n Jeon, M.K., and Kwon, T.H. (2017) "Comparison of pore network simulation and X-ray computed microtomography imaging on supercritical carbon dioxide injection to sandstone.", The Thirtieth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 2-4, 2017, Taipei, Taiwan.

n Kim, G.Y., Park, T.H., and Kwon, T.H. (2017) "Effect of biosurfactant on sweep efficiency of carbon dioxide using pore network modeling.", The Thirtieth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 2-4, 2017, Taipei, Taiwan.

n Kwon, T.H. Noh, D.H., Ham, S.M., Kim, Y.M., and Jeon, M.K. (2017). "Impact of bacterial biopolymer formation on hydraulic conductivity, erosion resistance and seismic response of sands", 19th International Conferencce on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Sep 21-23,2017,Seoul, Korea. [PDF]

n Jeon, M.K., Kwon, T.H.,Voltolini, M., and Ajo-Franklin, J. (2017). "Pore network simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide invasion in Domengine sandstone", 2017 ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics, May 11-13,2017,Jeju, Korea. [PDF]

2016

n Han, G., Kwon, T.H. and Lee, J.Y. (2016) "Depressurization-induced fines migration in hydrate-bearing clayey sands: X-ray CT imaging and quantification", AGU fall meeting, 12-16, December 2016, San Francisco.[B23G-03]. 

n Kim, Y.M. and Kwon, T.H. (2016) "Feasibility study of using bacterial biofilm formation for reduction of hydraulic conductivity of sands.", The Twenty-ninth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, December 3-5, 2016, Hong Kong, China.

n Choi, S. K., and Kwon, T. H. (2016). "Numerical simulations of debris flows affected by barrier locations and arrangements", International Conference on Landslide and Debris Flow Disasters, November 17, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Kim, G., Park, T., Kwon, T., Lee, G. and Park, G. (2016) “Determination of sweep efficiency and relative permeability during biosurfacant production using pore network modeling”, 2016 KSMER Fall Conference, November 3-4, Gyeongju, Korea. 

n Ham. S.M., Sim, Y.J., and Kwon. T., (2016) "Interactions between hydraulic fracture and interfaces in layered formations",  The 1st International Conference on Energy Geotechnics, August 29-31, 2016, Kiel, Germany. [PDF]

n Park, T., Kim, H. and Kwon, T. (2016) "A small pore size effect on dissociation behavior of gas hydrates in fine grained sediments", The 1st International Conference on Energy Geotechnics, August 29-31, 2016, Kiel, Germany. [PDF]

n Jeon, M.K., Kwon, T.H., Park, J.S. and Shin, J.H.  (2016), " Measuring microrheological properties of porous biopolymers in liquid", The 2016 World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research (ACEM16), August 28-September 1, 2016, Jeju, Korea. 

n Kim, Y.M., Kwon, T.H. and Kim, S.C. (2016) "Measuring elastic moduli of bacterial biofilms in a liquid phase using atomic force microscopy (AFM).", The 2016 World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research (ACEM16), August 28-September 1, 2016, Jeju, Korea. 

n Lee, G.J. and Kwon, T.H. (2016)"Effect of swelling of coal induced by carbon dioxide adsorption on permeability and P-wave velocity", The 2016 World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research (ACEM16), August 28-September 1, 2016, Jeju, Korea. 

n Park, T., Kim, H., Kwon, T. (2016) " Dissociation behavior of CO2 hydrate in fine grained sediments – a small pore size effect", 11th International Symposium on Cold Regions Development, May 18-20, 2016, Incheon, Korea. 

n Lee, G.J. and Kwon, T.H. (2016) "Conceptual study for developing real-scale testing method using tunnel boring machine of 3.5 meter diameter.", KTA 2016 Annual Conference, April 19, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Kim, Y.M. and Kwon, T.H. (2016) "The change in permeability caused by biofilm accumulation in soil.", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Lee, G.J. and Kwon, T.H. (2016) "Effect of soil moisture on absorption of terahertz laser.", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Choi, S. K., and Kwon, T. H. (2016). "Analysis of barrier installation on debris flow behavior using DAN3D", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Ham, S.M., Noh. D.H., Kwon, T., Chang, I.H. and Chung, M.K. (2016) "Experimental study of soil resistance increment caused by microbial biopolymer", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Noh, D.H., Kwon, T. H., Pack, H. j., Ha, J. G. (2016), "Dynamic centrifuge test on changes in small-strain shear modulus of saturated sand caused by bacterial biopolymer formation", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 

n Park, T., Ahn, J., Kwon, T. (2016) "Measurement of CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of reservoirs", KGS Spring National Conference 2016, March 17-18, 2016, Seoul, Korea.

n Park, T. and Kwon, T. (2016) " Effect of structurally ordered water molecules on gas hydrate formation kinetics – Implication to the absorbed water on clay mineral surfaces", Gordon Research Conference - Natural gas hydrate systems, February 28- March 04, 2016, Texas, United States.

n Choi, S. K., and Kwon, T. H. (2016). "Analysis of effect of slit-type barriers arrangement on debris flow behavior by smoothed particle hydrodynamics method", Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation Conference, February 18-19, 2016, Seoul, Korea. 


2015

n Choi, S. K., and Kwon, T. H. (2015). "Effect of installation location and arrangement of slit-type barriers on debris flow behavior", 3rd Asia Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction, November 27-28, 2015 Seoul, Korea. 

n Han, G. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Ultrasonic p-wave monitoring of CO2 hydrate growth in sands.", The Twenty-Eighth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 16-18, 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

n Lee, G.J. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Responses of terahertz laser reflectance caused by water content reduction during shotcrete curing.", The Twenty-Eighth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 16-18, 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

n Ham, S.M. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Laboratory experiments on two dimensional hydraulic fracture propagation in layered formations.", The Twenty-Eighth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 16-18, 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

n Lee, G.J. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Effect of carbon dioxide adsorption on permeability and mechanical strength of coal powders.", 15th Pan-American Conference On Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, November 15-18, 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina. [PDF]

n Noh, D.H. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Seismic monitoring of microbial plugging for microbial enhanced oil recovery.", 15th Pan-American Conference On Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, November 15-18, 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina[PDF]

n Choi, S.K. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Roles of spacing and angle of slit-type barriers in velocity reduction of debris flows.",  The 15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (15ARC), November 9-13, 2015, Fukuoka, Japan[PDF]

n Ham, S.M., Kwon, T. and Chang I.H. (2015) "Preliminary study on p-wave monitoring of soil erosion in SRICOS-EFA method.",  The 15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (15ARC), November 9-13, 2015, Fukuoka, Japan[PDF]

n Noh, D.H. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Seismic monitoring of permeability reduction caused by bacterial activities.", 2015 Fall Joint Conference of KSMER / KSRM / KSEG, October 28-31, 2015, Jeju, Korea.

n Choi, S.K. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Physical modeling on performance evaluation of slit-type walls against debris flows.",  Engineering Mechanics Institute Conference 2015June 16-19, 2015, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

n Choi, S.K. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Effect of location and arrangement of slit-type barriers on debris flow behavior: laboratory scaled experiment.", KGS Spring National Conference 2015March 19-20, 2015, Seoul, Korea.

n Ham, S.M., Kwon, T., Chang, I.H. and Noh, D.H. (2015) "Monitoring of soil erosion in SRICOS-EFA method using acoustic wave reflection method.", KGS Spring National Conference 2015, March 19-20, 2015, Seoul, Korea.

n Lee, S.J. and Kwon, T. (2015) "In-situ measurement of thermal conductivity of weathered rock.", KGS Spring National Conference 2015March 19-20, 2015, Seoul, Korea.

n Choi, S.K. and Kwon, T. (2015) "Effect of location and arrangement of slit-type barriers on debris flow behavior.",  KOSHAM Conference 2015, February 25-26, 2015, Seoul, Korea.

2014

n Lee, G.J., Kwon, T. (2014) "Effect of CO2 adsorption on mechanical stiffness and strength of coal powders.", The Twenty-Seventh KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 10-12, 2014, Shanghai, pp. SU6-7.

n Choi, S.K. and Kwon, T. (2014) "Piezoceramic-based measurement of P- and S- wave velocity of cylinderical bars.", The Twenty-Seventh KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 10-12, 2014, Shanghai, pp. G4-5.

n Ham, S.M., Kwon, T. and Chang, I.H. (2014) "Monitoring of soil erosion by using a P-wave reflection method in laboratory.", The Twenty-Seventh KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 10-12, 2014, Shanghai, pp. G4-4.

n Lee, S.J., Kwon, T. and Ryu, H.H. (2014) "Effect of thickness of thermal needle probe on measurement of thermal conductivity of soils.", The Twenty-Seventh KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 10-12, 2014, Shanghai, pp. G3-4.

n Noh, D.H. and Kwon, T. (2014) "P- and S-wave monitoring of insoluble biopolymer accumulations by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in fine sands.", The Twenty-Seventh KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 10-12, 2014, Shanghai, pp. G3-3.

n Lee, S.J., Kim, K.R. and Kwon, T. (2014) "Measurement of thermal conductivity of grounds surrounding electric power cable tunnels.", KTA 2014 Annual Conference, November 5, 2014, Seoul, Korea. 

n Noh, D.H. and Kwon, T. (2014) "Seismic monitoring of permeability reduction caused by bacterial biopolymer accumulation.", KGS Spring National Conference 2014, March 20-21, 2014, Seoul, Korea.

n Ta, H., Kwon, T., and Muhunthan, B. (2014) "Preliminary study of geophysical monitoring of bioclogging caused by bacterial biopolymer accumulation in sands." Geo-Congress 2014 Technical Papers: pp. 1654-1663, doi: 10.1061/9780784413272.162[PDF]

n Abbasi, B. and Kwon, T. (2014) “Diffusive and convective transport of disposed CO2 in porous media: a numerical approach.” Geo-Congress 2014 Technical Papers: pp. 534-543, doi: 10.1061/9780784413272.051[PDF]


2013

n Cha, Y.H., Cho, G.C., Kwon, T.H. and Lee, K.R. (2013). "Geomechanical properties of an oceanic sand sediment sample using high-pressure triaxial compression test", The Twenty-Sixth KKHTCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, November 18-20, 2013, Singapore, pp. G1-4.


(Prior to the KAIST Appointment)

n Hubbard, C., Hubbard, S., Wu, Y., Surasani, V., Ajo-Franklin, J., Commer, M., Dou, S., Kwon, T.H., Li, L., Fouke, B., and Coates, J. (2012). “Toward optimized bioclogging and biocementation through combining advanced geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling approaches”, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 3-7, December 2012, San Francisco, CA.

n Kim, H.S., Kwon, T.H., and Cho, G.C. (2012). “Seismic wave velocity of hydrate-bearing fine-grained sediments sampled from the Ulleung basin in East Sea, Korea”, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 3-7, December 2012, San Francisco, CA.

n  Voltolini, M., Kwon, T.H., and Ajo-Franklin, J.B. (2012). “Geological carbon sequestration: new insights from in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography”, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 3-7, December 2012, San Francisco, CA.

n  Kim, H. S., Kwon, T.H., and Cho, G. C. (2012). "Experimental study on seismic wave velocity of hydrate-bearing fine-grained sediments", Proceedings of the 2012 World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research (ACEM’ 12), Seoul, Korea, 26-30 August, 2012.

n  Kim, A. R., Cho, G. C., and Kwon, T.H. (2011). "Geological sequestration of CO2 in Korea - Critical review and geotechnical engineering aspects", Proceedings of the 2011 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM11+), Seoul, Korea, 18-22 September, 2011.

n  Kim, H. S., Kwon, T.H., and Cho, G. C. (2011). "Geophysical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments", Proceedings of the 2011 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM11+), Seoul, Korea, 18-22 September, 2011.

n  Cho, G.C., Oh, T.M., Lee, C., and Kwon, T.H. (2011). "1-D physical modeling of thermal destabilization of hydrate-bearing sediments", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011), Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, July 17-21, 2011.

n  Kwon, T.H., and Jonathan Ajo-Franklin (2011). Seismic monitoring of permeability reduction due to biopolymer formation in unconsolidated mediaSEG Expanded Abstracts 30, 2282-2286 (2011); doi:10.1190/1.3627663, presented at 81st Annual Meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysics (SEG), Sept. 18-23, 2011, San Antonio, TX. [PDF]

n  Kwon, T.H., Kneafsey, T., and Rees, E. (2010). Dissociation heat of methane-carbon dioxide hydrate mixtures, AGU Fall Meeting, 13-17, December 2010, San Francisco [OS53A-1363].

n  Rees, E., Kneafsey, T., and Kwon, T.H. (2010). "Synthesising uniform gas hydrate in natural porous media under partially saturated and fully water saturated conditions"American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 13-17, December 2010, San Francisco [OS53A-1365]

n  Kwon, T.H., Kneafsey, T., and Rees, E. (2010). "Dissociation behavior of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates", Gordon Research Conference on Natural Gas Hydrate Systems, 6-11, June 2010, Maine.

n  Rees, E.V.L., Kneafsey, T.J. and Kwon T.H. (2010), Synthesising uniform gas hydrate laboratory samples: Investigation of techniques using XRay CT scanning. Gordon Research Conference on Natural Gas Hydrate Systems, Colby College, Maine. 611 June.

n  Lee, K.R., Kim, H.S., Cho, G.C., and Kwon, T.H. (2010). "Geotechnical centrifuge test on gas hydrate-bearing sediments – dissociation process monitoring", Gordon Research Conference on Natural Gas Hydrate Systems, 6-11, June 2010, Maine.

n  Kwon, T.H. Cho, G.C., Santamarina, J.C., Kim, H.S., and Lee, J. (2009). "Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation", AGU Fall Meeting, 14-18, December 2009, San Francisco [OS31A-1206].

n  Kim, A.R., Chang, I., Cho, G.C., Kwon, T.H. and Lee, J.H. (2009). "Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments in the Ulleung basin", The Twenty-second KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, Oct. 31 - Nov. 2, 2009, Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp. 455-460.

n  Kwon, T.H. and Cho, G.C. (2008). "Excess pore pressure generation in gas hydrate-bearing sediments by thermal changes", Annual meeting of Korean society of civil engineering, 29-31, October 2008, Daejeon, pp. 937-940, in Korean.

n  Kwon, T.H., Cho, G.C., and Park, K.P. (2008). "Destabilization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments by thermal changes - a numerical approach", Fall meeting of Korean society of geosystem engineering, 16 October 2008, Seoul, pp. 116-118, in Korean.

n  Kim, H.S., Kwon, T.H., Cho, G.C., and Lee, J.Y. (2008). "Experimental observation on electrical resistivity of sandy sediments containing CO2", The Twenty-First KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, October 27–28, 2008, Singapore, pp. 408-411.

n  Kwon, T.H., Kim, H.S., Cho, G.C., and Lee, J.S. (2007). "Monitoring of CO2 hydrate formation in sediments using compressional wave velocity", The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (ANDE), October 17-19, 2007, Busan, Korea, Poster presentation [2007-345].

n  Chang, I., Kwon, T.H., Cho, G.C., and Kim, J.H. (2007). "Estimation of in-situ undrained shear strength of soft clays from shear wave velocity", The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (ANDE), October 17-19, 2007, Busan, Korea, Poster presentation [2007-185].

n  Kim, K., Kwon, T.H., Cho, G.C., and Kim, L.H. (2007). "Electrical resistivity monitoring of a celite-based particulate filter form the non-point source pollutant treatment", The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (ANDE), October 17-19, 2007, Busan, Korea, Poster presentation [2007-226].

n  Kim, K.W., Kwon, T.H., and Cho, G.C. (2007). "Monitoring the performance efficiency of a non-point source pollutants-filtering system with electrical resistivity", The Twentieth KKCNN symposium on Civil Engineering, October 4-5, 2007, Jeju, Korea, pp.318-321.

n  Kwon, T.H. and Cho, G.C. (2006). "Geotechnical instability problem caused by thermally-destabilized gas hydrates", The Nineteenth KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, December 10-12, 2006, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 461-464.

n  Kwon, T.H., Choi, J.S. and Cho, G.C. (2004). "Assessment of soil-water interaction characteristics using wave-based techniques", 5th Asian Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference: Challenges to Young Geotechnical Engineers in Asia in the 21st Century, June 14-16 2004, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 93-97.

n  Cho, G.C. and Kwon, T.H. (2004). "Spatial assessment of soil properties using electromagnetic waves", Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Smart Materials and Structures Technology 2004, January 12-14, 2004, Hawaii, DEStech Publications, Inc., pp. 575-582.

n  Kwon, T.H., Baak, S.H., and Cho, G.C. (2004). "Shear behaviour of idealized rock joints – Microscale analysis", Proceedings of the 30th ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress, edited by Shirlaw, J.N., Zhao, and R. Krishnan, R., 22-27 May 2004, Singapore. [PDF]

n  Kwon, T.H., Baak, S.H., and Cho, G.C. (2003). "Shear behaviour of idealized rock joints", The Sixteenth KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, December 8-10, 2003, Kyoungju, Korea, pp. 567-573.

n  Cho, G.C., Lee, S.R., and Kwon, T.H. (2003). "Characterization of soil properties using elastic and electromagnetic waves", Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Smart Systems and Nondestructive Evaluation for Civil Infrastructures, Shih-Chi Liu (ed.), Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5057, 2-6 March 2003, San Diego, California USA, pp. 440-450.

n  Cho, G.C. and Kwon, T.H. (2002). "A simplified test procedure to determine critical state parameters in sandy soils", Proceedings of 15th KKCNN Symposium on Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, 19-20 December 2002, pp. G25-G30.